Achilles Tendonitis: Tendonitis is a term used to describe an inflamed and painful tendon. Tendons are strong bands or cords of tissue that attach muscle to the bone. Tendon pain can be cause by small tears in the surrounding tissue, or gradual deterioration of a tendon where it connects to the bone.

Ligament Sprain: Ligament sprains are a common type of injury, which can occur when one or more of the ligaments are overstretched, torn or twisted, usually as a result of excessive force being applied to a joint. It is common in the ankle when running or walking on uneven surfaces.

Metatarsalgia: Metatarsalgia is caused by a wide variety of conditions. They affect the five long bones known as the metatarsals that connect the bones around the toes. As a lot of pressure is put through the metatarsals, they can be a common source of pain.

Plantar Fasciitis: Plantar fasciitis causes pain in the heel of the foot or on the soles of the feet is a common condition. It is can be felt as an intense pain when placing weight on the foot and heel. It usually affects one heel, although it is not uncommon for it to occur in both heels, often causing a limp to develop an abnormal walking style.


Chrondomalacia Patella: Chondromalacia patella is damage to the patella cartilage at the back of the kneecap. It is similar to a softening or wear and tear of the cartilage itself, which can become rough or damaged and has various causes from overuse in certain sporting activities, misalignment of the knee or as part of the ageing process, where there is wear and tear in the cartilage of the joints.

Iliotibial Band Syndrome: Iliotibial Band Syndrome is common among runners and those who partake in sports, which require jumping or fast changing positions. The Iliotibial Band is a ligament, which runs down the side of the thigh from the hip to shin, which helps to stabilise and move the joint. It can become tight or inflamed.

Knee Bursitis: Bursitis is a fluid-filled sac that acts a gliding surface to reduce friction between moving tissues of the body. In the knee, there are many bursae which can become inflamed causing pain.

Ligament Sprain: Ligament sprains are a common type of injury, which can occur when one or more of the ligaments are overstretched, torn or twisted, usually as a result of excessive force being applied to a joint. It is common in the knee when you turn quickly during physical exercise. There are many ligaments of the knee, such as the anterior cruciate ligament, posterior cruciate ligament, medial lateral collateral ligament and lateral collateral ligament which are most commonly injured.

Meniscal Tear: Meniscal tears are common among knee injuries, particularly among those who play contact sports, and which affects the cartilage in the knee. Meniscal tears may often occur alongside a ligament sprain in the knee.

Osgood-Schlatter Disease: Osgood-Schlatter disease is a painful conditions that affects the upper part of the shin bone. It most commonly occurs in teenagers, who play sport, which involved kicking, running or jumping where the thigh muscles are used.

Shin splints: Shin splints is a name given to exercise-induced pain in the lower leg, most commonly along the front of the leg between the knee and ankle. It is usually caused by overuse and typically, but not always in runners.

Head and Neck

Cervical Sprain/Strain: Cervical sprain and strains are terms used to describe soft tissue damage (stretch, tearing or rupture) to the ligaments, muscles, intervertebral discs and other tissues surrounding the cervical spine. There are different grades according to the amount of damage.

Cervicogenic Headaches: There are many causes of headaches. Cervicogenic headaches are those, which result from head pain originating from the spine, which may be aggravated by specific neck movements or sustained posture and may radiate to the forehead, eye region, temples or ears.

Cervical Spondylosis/Joint Degeneration: Cervical spondylosis is wear and tear of the vertebrae, discs and small joints (facet joints) in the neck. This is a normal part of the ageing process and does not always lead to causing symptoms in many people. However, equally, it may be a cause of neck pain, arm pain and reduced movement in the neck itself.

Temporomandibular Joint Disorders: Temporomandibular joint disorders are problems affecting the jaw joint, which results in usually pain but also reduced movement of the joint.

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome: Thoracic Outlet Syndrome occurs when the nerves and /or blood vessels in thoracic outlet are compressed or squashed.

Back and Pelvis

Sciatica/Trapped Nerve:Sciatica refers to pain that radiates along the path of the sciatic nerve — which branches from your lower back through your hips and buttocks and down each leg. Typically, sciatica affects only one side of your body and most commonly occurs when the nerve is trapped from a herniated disc or from degenerative changes of the lumbar spine and surrounding structures which compresses part of the nerve. This causes inflammation, pain and often some numbness in the affected leg.

Disc Herniation/Prolapse/Slipped Disc: Lumbar disc herniations are caused by movement of the nucleus material, which lies in between the vertebral discs. These can cause nearby compression of spinal nerves. 

Facet Syndrome: Lumbar facet syndrome causes lower back pain, which originates from the small joints, known as facet joints and/or the joint capsule in the back. These can cause acute episodes of back pain, which typically, can be felt as dull, achy pain made worse by movement.

Muscle and/or Ligament Sprain/Strain: Sprains and strains are terms used to describe soft tissue damage (stretch or rupture) to the ligaments and muscles surrounding the lumbar spine, sacrum and pelvis. These vary in severity.

Pelvic misalignment: This can be due to an anatomical leg length discrepancy or more commonly resulting from a postural problem in which the pelvis becomes permanently rotated upwards, downwards, to either side or a combination of these.

When the pelvis is rotated, the strain placed on the back, hips, abdomen and muscles can be enormous and often results in Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunctions.

Sacroiliac (SI) joint dysfunction is a common cause of low back pain. Other terms for this condition include sacroiliitis, SI joint inflammation, SI joint syndrome, sacroiliac joint dysfunction, and SI joint strain. This condition can make daily activities, such as sitting, standing, walking, and even sleeping difficult.
Different conditions can cause SI joint dysfunction. The most common include:

  • Arthritis: SI joint dysfunction can be caused by spondylosis (spinal osteoarthritis)—when your cartilage around your SI joints wears down, your bones can start to rub against each other. Anklylosing spondylitis, a type of inflammatory arthritis that affects your spine, can also cause SI joint dysfunction.
  • Pregnancy: Pregnant women may experience low back pain or pelvic pain due to sacroiliac joint dysfunction because the SI joints can stretch and become loose during pregnancy. Also, hormone changes and the additional weight gained during pregnancy can put added stress on SI joints.
  • Trauma: A sudden impact like a car accident or bad fall could damage your SI joints.


Groin Strain:Groin strains can occur in the inside muscles of the thigh. People who are sporty may experience this as a result of injury or overuse.

Hamstring Strain:Hamstring strains are injury to the muscles at the back of the thigh. They can be vulnerable to injury, usually associated with sports.

Hip Degenerative Arthritis: Hip degenerative arthritis can cause pain associated with the breakdown of the cartilage (articular) of the hip joint. 

Hip Sprain:Hip sprain can be caused by trauma or injury to the hip joint capsule. There are many ligaments surrounding the hip. Other muscles, tendons and bursa (fluid filled sacs) can be affected.


Adhesive Capsulitis/Frozen Shoulder: Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder is a common cause of shoulder pain. It can affect one or both shoulder. Thickening of the joint capsule around the shoulder joint can cause pain and also loss of movement. 

Biceps Tendonitis: Bicepts tendonitis is inflammation of the long tendon and sheath of the biceps brachii muscle in the upper forearm.

Shoulder Impingement Syndrome: This is common in sports that involve repetitive overhead motions or throwing, such as swimming, cricket, and tennis. It is also common amongst people who work with their arms in overhead positions, such as plasterers, electricians and builders.

There are several anatomical structures which can contribute to shoulder impingement which may include bony abnormalities, acromio-clavicular joint arthritis and bony spurs, bursitis, inflammation especially with overuse or irritation of the rotator cuff muscles, shoulder instability.

Rotator Cuff Strain: Rotator cuff strains occur when trauma or activity induced injury is caused to the group of muscles associated with the rotator cuff (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor and the subscapularis muscles). It can be caused by a single event or rapid onset and is graded due to its severity.

Shoulder Impingement Syndrome: Shoulder impingement disorders occur by repeated irritation of pinching of the rotator cuff muscles (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor and the subscapularis muscles) or biceps brachii as the pass in the upper and front part of the shoulder complex.


Elbow Sprain: Elbow sprain is a result of soft tissue damage (stretch or rupture) to the ligaments surrounding the elbow joint.

Lateral Epicondylitis/Tennis Elbow:Lateral epicondylitis is pain on the outer side of your elbow affecting the tendons. For most people, pain occurs when they use their forearm and wrist, particularly twisting movements such as opening a jar and turning a door handle. It is known as Tennis elbow, but you do not need to play tennis to suffer from this condition.

Medial epicondylitis/Golfer’s Elbow: Medial epicondylitis is pain felt on the inside of the elbow and forearm. It is similar to Tennis elbow.

Wrist and Hand

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Carpal tunnel syndrome is pain and symptoms in the hand, caused by pressure on a nerve in the wrist.

Wrist Sprain: Wrist sprain is traumatic overstretching of the ligaments of the wrist. There are many joints in the wrist, which can be susceptible to damage caused by overuse or repetitive strain injuries.


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Tel: 01920 424944

Watton-at-Stone Clinic
Hertfordshire SG14 3SN



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